Common Logical Fallacies

Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning that can lead to false or inaccurate conclusions. It is important to be able to identify these fallacies so that you can avoid making them yourself and so that you can spot them when others are making them. If you can identify a logical fallacy, you can often point it out to the person who made it and help them to see why their reasoning is flawed. This can help to improve the quality of discussion and debate, and can ultimately lead to better decision-making.

1. Ad Hominem: Attacking an opponent's character rather than engaging with their argument.

2. Appeal to Authority: Using the word of an expert to support an argument, even if that expert is not qualified to speak on the topic.

3. Appeal to Emotion: Manipulating an opponent's emotions in order to win an argument, rather than engaging with the argument itself.

4. Appeal to Tradition: Arguing that something should be done because it has always been done that way, regardless of whether or not it is still relevant.

5. Bandwagon Effect: Convincing others to support an argument because everyone else is doing it, regardless of the merits of the argument.

6. Begging the Question: Making an assumption in an argument that has not been proven.

7. Black-and-White Thinking: Dividing things into two extreme categories with no middle ground.

8. Circular Reasoning: Using the same evidence to support and conclusion, without providing any new evidence.

9. Confirmation Bias: Looking for evidence that supports one's own beliefs and ignoring evidence that goes against them.

10. False Dilemma: Creating a false choice between two options when there are other options available.

11. Hasty Generalization: Drawing a conclusion based on insufficient evidence.

12. Non Sequitur: Making a conclusion that does not follow logically from the evidence that was presented.

13. Red Herring: Introducing a new topic to an argument that distracts from the original issue.

14. Slippery Slope: Arguing that one small action will lead to a series of catastrophic events, even though there is no evidence to support this claim.

15. Straw Man: Distorting an opponent's argument to make it easier to attack.

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